Scientists find new way for volcanoes to form

For story suggestions or custom animation requests, contact [email protected] Visit http://archive.nextanimationstudio.com to view News Direct's complete archive of 3D news animations.

RESTRICTIONS: Broadcast: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN Digital: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN
The now-dormant volcano that created the island of Bermuda formed in a way that has not been observed before, according to a study published in the journal Nature.

Scientists examined the chemical composition of a core sample drilled from the volcano in 1972 and found that it contained large amounts of water enclosed in crystals.

This indicates that the core consists of material from the earth's mantle transition zone, which is 250 to 400 miles beneath the planet's crust.

The scientists developed numerical models and found that a disturbance in the transition zone most likely caused the materials to melt and permeate to earth's surface. The water found in the crystals most likely aided the rocks in melting while in the transition zone, according to the researchers.

Previously, volcanoes were known to form when tectonic plates converge or drift apart, or when mantle plumes rise from the core-mantle boundary.

The researchers had been expecting to find that Bermuda was formed a mantle plume, as was Hawaii.

Senior author of the study Esteban Gazel was quoted in a Cornell University news release as saying: "With this work we can demonstrate that the Earth's transition zone is an extreme chemical reservoir."

"Our next step is to examine more locations to determine the difference between geological processes that can result in intraplate volcanoes and determine the role of the mantle's transition zone in the evolution of our planet."

RUNDOWN SHOWS:
1. Globe and island of Bermuda
2. What the scientists found in the rock core sample
3. Cross section of earth showing the mantle transition zone
4. Cross section of earth showing materials from the transition zone moving up to earth's surface

VOICEOVER (in English):
"The now-dormant volcano that created the island of Bermuda formed in a way that has not been observed before, according to a study published in the journal Nature."

"Scientists examined the chemical composition of a core sample drilled from the volcano in 1972 and found that it contained large amounts of water enclosed in crystals."

"This indicates that the core consists of material from the earth's mantle transition zone, which is 250 to 400 miles beneath the planet's crust."

"The scientists developed numerical models and found that a disturbance in the transition zone most likely caused the materials to melt and permeate to earth's surface."

"The water found in the crystals most likely aided the rocks in melting while in the transition zone, according to the researchers."

SOURCES: Nature, Brinkwire, National Science Foundation, Science Daily, Phys.org, Cornell University
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1183-6
http://brinkwire.com/science/scientists-discover-new-way-for-volcanoes-to-form/
https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=298562
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190515144028.htm
https://phys.org/news/2019-05-earth-deep-mantle-scientists-volcanoes.html
https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2019/05/earths-deep-mantle-scientists-discover-new-way-volcanoes-form