Sputnik V explainer: How Russia's coronavirus vaccine works

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Russia on August 11 became the first country in the world to approve a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Now the first batch of the vaccine is ready for public distribution, TASS Russian News Agency reports, citing Russia's health ministry.

Russia's coronavirus vaccine, dubbed Sputnik V in homage the world's first satellite placed in orbit by the Soviet Union, uses modified adenoviruses, viruses that cause the common cold, to trigger an immune response and prime the immune system to respond to SARS-CoV-2.

This animation explains how the vaccine works.

RUNDOWN SHOWS:
1. Depiction and explanation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
2. Spike protein gene is cut from the coronavirus
3. Sputnik V vaccine uses two different adenoviruses as vectors
4. Vector injecting modified genetic payload into a human cell
5. Human cell producing antibodies
6. Antibodies attacking a coronavirus

VOICEOVER (in English):
"The outer coating of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is covered in spike proteins that give the virus its crown-like appearance."

"The spike protein possesses receptor binding domains, or RBDs, that the coronavirus uses to pry open receptors before penetrating the cellular membrane."

"Sputnik V employs a gene with the code for the spike protein that the coronavirus uses to enter a human cell."

"The spike protein gene is cut from the coronavirus and inserted into a vector, a virus that is weakened so that it cannot grow inside the human body after injection."

"For its vectors, Sputnik V uses adenoviruses that cause the common cold."

"Two different adenoviruses — rAd26 and rAd5 — are employed for the first and second doses to boost the effectiveness of the vaccine."

"The genes from these adenoviruses that cause infection are removed, while the gene with the code of the spike protein is inserted."

"Adenoviruses are popular as vectors because they are easy to engineer. They are deemed safe because they have been with humans for thousands of years."

"The modified viruses should mimic a real coronavirus infection and teach the immune system to recognize COVID-19."

"Although they do not cause infection, the modified viruses should still trigger the body to produce antibodies that would neutralize the coronavirus."

"The vaccine is being developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow."

"Russia's health ministry said on Tuesday, September 8 said the first batch of the vaccine passed all necessary quality tests and a countrywide COVID-19 vaccination campaign will begin next month.'"

SOURCES: Radio Free Europe, TASS Russian News Agency, The Lancet, Reuters, Gamaleya National Center, BBC News
https://www.rferl.org/a/ministry-says-first-batch-of-russian-covid-19-vaccine-released-for-distribution/30827265.html
https://tass.ru/obschestvo/9394703
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30402-1/fulltext
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31866-3/fulltext
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-russia-vaccine/results-of-russias-covid-19-vaccine-produced-antibody-response-the-lancet-idUSKBN25V1I2
https://sputnikvaccine.com/about-vaccine/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-54082192